Ministry of Health
With the relative
ease of using PowerPoint presentations, it is very easy to "overdo" things.
The same mistakes crop up again and again. The following is a guide to how
to set up a PowerPoint presentation that will keep your audience interested and
not irritate them.
Choose an appropriate colour
- Sure, beauty is in the eye
of the beholder, but if in doubt try the old favourite of yellow text on
a blue background. If you are talking about jaundice, it’s
funny to choose a yellow background with bronze text and lime green
- For presentations in a
room which is relatively well lit, choose a light background and
- For presentations in a
relatively dark room, choose a dark background with light text.
Pick the right font style
- Stick to the same font
style (and colours) all the way through.
- For titles, choose a sans
serif font such as Arial,
MS Sans Serif.
- "Serifs" are those
little extra lines at the bottoms of the letters in some styles,
Times New Roman and
Serif fonts are easy to read as text in a journal, paper, or book,
but can be harder to read on a screen or on overheads.
- For the text, either a
sans serif or serif font is fine, as long is it is large enough to be
seen (see next point).
Pick the right font size
- People - even those who
choose to sit at the back of the lecture theatre - need to be able to
read the slide text. In general,
- 40-48 pitch for titles
- 28-36 pitch for slide
Mixing styles and sizes is
- Once you have settled on a
colour scheme, a font style, and a font size, stick to it. It's
distracting if the appearance of your slides keeps changing.
Don't use animation or slide
- There are rare
circumstances when animation may enhance a presentation, but they are
few and far between. And you have to be proficient with PowerPoint
to pull off any sort of animation which adds to the content.
- It is very distracting if
the text “dissolves” onto the screen or if it flies in from the left (or
anywhere, for that matter). It is also irritating if each line of
text slowly reveals itself to the audience. They will be thinking about
what is coming next, rather than what you are talking about.
- Avoid PowerPoint templates
that involve animation such as lights running across the screen - they
slow down the slide transition and they distract the audience.
- There is a similar
principle with overhead acetate sheets – don’t ever
ever EVER be tempted to put the sheet down on the projector, put a
piece of paper over the top, and then reveal each line to your audience.
Be careful with the use of
- We're pleased you came
back to work from that nice week you had off in Fiji but do we really
need to see pictures of you lying on a beach?
- If you are putting in
images, think about how they are going to add to what you are
presenting, and what you are going to say when they are displayed.
- Maximise the size of your
images so that they are large enough to illustrate exactly what you want
- Be careful with x-rays and
ultrasound images - they can be notoriously difficult to interpret in a
light room, so make sure the lights are down.
- Images also take up more
memory - less of an issue these days with CD burners and memory sticks,
but not everyone has removable storage devices.
6 points on a slide is enough
- This is all that most
brains can handle in one go.
- People can read faster
than you can talk, so if you cram the slide with information, no one is
going to listen to you so you may as well give them a handout and leave
- PowerPoint will let you
“scrunch” the lines a bit closer together to fit it on the page, but
don’t be tempted to make the font smaller to get all the information
onto one slide.
Be careful with tables and
- Scanning in tables from
journals and other sources can be a bit of a gamble. Some tables
scan in well (you can often copy the image from a pdf file from an
electronic journal with good results), but the text is always going to
- Consider sifting out
the bits that are important and put them in as a few lines of your
own custom-built table.
- Please summarise multiple
results into a table or a graph, rather than a long list.
Don’t ever start a sentence with "This is a really busy slide
- If it’s busy for you and
you’ve spent days or weeks preparing the talk, then how do you think we
all feel when it’s flashed up for less than 30 seconds?
- Either take out the
information that we don’t need to know, or split it into more than one
Don't ever start a sentence
with "You don't really need to know this ....."
- If we don't need to know
it, what's it doing on your slide?
Don’t put up a complicated
flow chart or table without explaining it
- Not all of us can remember
the coagulation cascade from the last time we saw it (in fact, it has
probably changed several times since we last thought about it).
- If you go to the trouble
of putting a lovely chart or table up with lots of arrows and boxes and
writing, point out the bits you think we should pay more attention to.
Run a spell check
- Putting your presentation
on a big screen is quite unforgiving of spelling mistakes and
grammatical errors. We're generally not English language fanatics,
but there are only so many times you can see incorrectly spelt words
before it becomes your sole mission in life to enrol the presenter into
a secondary school remedial spelling class against their will.
- PowerPoint has an inbuilt
spelling checker which makes squiggly red lines under the words that are
not recognised - check if they need to be changed.
- Spelling mistakes just
give the impression that you did not take time preparing your talk.
Count your slides and/or
time your talk
- This all relates to
preparation and knowing your talk well.
- Keep a track of how many
you have, and think carefully about how long it is going to take you to
get through each one. Some slides can be flashed up quickly,
others may take a couple of minutes to talk about.
Carl Kuschel and Malcolm Battin,