Approved by Clinical Practice Committee
Re-Issued with minor edits
Mar 2015
Clinical Guidelines Back Newborn Services Home Page
Incidence Definition and Description Investigations
Surgical Management Referrals References


Definition and Description

Hypospadias (hypo = below; spadon = a fissure or a ‘hole’)  is a ventral displacement of the urethral meatus and may be associated with:

  • Incomplete formation of the prepuce / foreskin (dorsal 'hooding')
  • Ventral curvature (chordee).

Urethral meatal openings are generally described as being:

  • Anterior – where the meatus is near the tip of the penis
  • Middle – where the meatus is along the shaft of the penis
  • Posterior – where the meatus is near the base of the penis or in the scrotum


  • Early recognition and paediatric urological referral is useful for counselling and planning timing of surgery
Hypospadias Terminology


Surgical Management




Kulkarni BK, Oak SN, Patel MP, Merchant S, Borwankar SS. Developmental anomalies associated with hypospadias. J Postgrad Med 1991;37:140-3


Bauer SB, Retik AB, Colodny AH. Genetic aspects of hypospadias. Urol Clin North Am 1981;8:559-64.
3 Manson JM, Carr MC. Molecular Epidemiology of Hypospadias: Review of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors. Birth Defects Research 2003;67(Part A):825– 36.
4 Smith EP, Wacksman J. Evaluation of severe hypospadias. J Pediatr 1997;131:344-6.
5 Shukla AR, Patel RP, Canning DA. Hypospadias. Urol Clin North Am 2004 Aug;31(3):445-60. (This entire issue is devoted to hypospadias)
6 Anonymous. Timing of elective surgery on the genitalia of male children with particular reference to the risks, benefits and psychological effects of surgery and anesthesia. Pediatics 1996;97(4):590-4.